The question referred to the past 12 months, and the average of the 27 EU member states was 5%, that is, 19.7 million out of the 392.9 million were at one point present on the black labor market. The study was prepared with the participation of 26,659 respondents.
The state with the highest percentage is Denmark (18%), followed by Latvia (15%), and the Netherlands (13%). Hungary ranked in the same group with Austria, the Czech Republic, and Lithuania (all 7%), while the end of the list is as follows: Portugal (3%), Great-Britain and Malta (both 2%), and Cyprus (1%).
Illegal workers make average €16.6 an hour, the study found, also pointing out that the gap of 30% between male and female salaries is substantially bigger than the 15% margin on the legal labor market.